Safeguarding- Eating Disorders

Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses that involve disordered eating behaviour. This might mean limiting the amount of food eaten, eating very large quantities of food at once, getting rid of food eaten through unhealthy means (e.g. purging, laxative misuse, fasting, or excessive exercise), or a combination of these behaviours. It’s important to remember that eating disorders are not all about food itself, but about feelings. The way the person interacts with food may make them feel more able to cope, or may make them feel in control.

 

Eating disorders include anorexia, bulimia, binge eating disorder and other specified feeding or eating disorder.  They can affect anyone of any age, gender or background.  It is possible to move between eating disorders.

 

Anorexia:

Characterised by extreme low weight created through deliberate restriction of calorie intake often coupled with excessive exercise. Someone with anorexia will have a different perception to others of their physical appearance.

 

Symptoms and effects

 

Behavioural Psychological Physical Long term effect
Counting the calories in food excessively

Eating only low-calorie food

 

Excessive focus on calorie counting Weight loss Osteoporosis
Missing meals

Avoiding eating with other people

 

Fear of putting weight on Feeling dizzy Erosion of tooth enamel
Cutting food into tiny pieces to make it less obvious they have eaten little or to make food easier to swallow

 

Underestimating / denying seriousness of problem Swelling of hands, feet or face Heart problems
Excessive exercising – this might involve exercising when not physically well enough to do so, or feeling guilty or anxious about not exercising Spending most of the time thinking about food Constipation, tummy hurts, feeling bloated Difficulty conceiving
Not being truthful about how much weight has been lost Low confidence Growing fine soft hair all over body Delayed onset of puberty
Social withdrawal Anxiety about eating in front of others Feeling cold or having low body temperature Damage to other organs

 

Anorexia has the highest mortality rate of any mental illness.  It is extremely important to seek expert advice and support if you suspect someone has anorexia, for example from the organisation Beat.

 

Anorexia can be treated through a number of therapies although recovery takes time.

 

Bulimia:

 

People with bulimia are caught in a cycle of eating large quantities of food (called bingeing), and then trying to compensate for that overeating by vomiting, taking laxatives or diuretics, fasting, or exercising excessively (called purging).

During a binge, people with bulimia don’t feel in control of how much or how quickly they’re eating. Some people also say that they feel as though they’re disconnected from what they’re doing. The food eaten during a binge may include things the person would usually avoid. Episodes of bingeing are often very distressing.

 

Behavioural Psychological Physical Long terms effects
Binge and purging cycles Preoccupied with food Tiredness Damage and strain of the heart
Vomiting Secretive about food Bloated Damage to teeth
Laxatives Low self confidence Swelling of feet or hands Damage to the digestive system
Being in the toilet for long periods of time Feelings of guilt and shame, particularly after a binge Constipation Infertility
Body weight is “normal” Self-conscious about eating with others Abdominal pain
Irritable Irregular periods